david coombe history

 

S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845


SUMMARY: S.T. Gill's largest single commission was from newspaperman and his father's coreligionist, James Allen (1806-1886). After selling his newspaper, the South Australian Register, in June 1845, Allen set about preparing for a lecture tour in England to promote South Australia. He commissioned Gill to paint watercolours and wash drawings. These were used to prepare "dissolving views" projected by magic lantern and which accompanied Allen's lectures.

This article:

Article type: NARRATIVE, ANALYSIS, CATALOGUE


Contents

In this article ...

Note: Art work images are not stored but are dynamically displayed from the online services of the holding institutions.

James Allen, newspaperman (1806–1886)

James Allen was a newspaper man. In London he'd worked at the Morning Chronicle1 – alongside Charles Dickens, it was said, while both were in their early careers. Soon after arriving in South Australia, he became editor of Archibald MacDougall's Southern Australian.2 In 1841 Allen launched his own humble productions, the South Australian Magazine in July and the South Australian News Letter at the end of the year. The economy was as flat as a salt lake and the South Australian Register, the establishment newspaper, was another struggling business. Allen took advantage of a forced sale in August, buying it cheaply at £600.1 He became a newspaper proprietor for the first, but not the last time.

Thumbnail image for SLSA B 338
"Wanted – a Directory" (James Allen) | State Library of South Australia B 338 


James Allen was an editor, an owner and his own journalist. Today he might also be thought of as a data journalist. He was a driven complier of statistics – ships, migrants, bushels, acres, tons, £s and head (both people and stock) – tables, lists, almanacks and directories. He enumerated the progress of the South Australian colony.

Reverend James Allen, Reverend Samuel Gill, Governor George Grey

Allen was also a Baptist minister. He was friends with fellow Baptist minister, Samuel Gill (father of artist Samuel Thomas Gill), the reverend pair sharing duties of chapel preaching and River Torrens baptising.

Their friendship was on public display at an event that also highlighted the conflict between Allen, the newspaper editor and George Grey, the Governor. That occasion was the 1843 annual meeting of the "South Australian Missionary Society in aid of the German Mission to the Aborigines", chaired by Grey and held in the Wesleyan Chapel, Gawler Place. When at the end of the meeting it came time to elect a committee for the following year, Allen's name was not on the nomination list, despite being a member of the outgoing committee. Allen objected. His opposing newspaper proprietor, John Stephens, characterised the incident in his Observer:

The unmannerly breach of Christian decorum to which we have alluded was concocted by Mr James Allen, (whose name had been omitted from the list of the Committee for the ensuing year), and a Mr Gill, who, as Mr Allen subsequently informed the meeting, was there with his concurrence. Mr Gill rose from the body of the chapel, and without addressing himself to his Excellency or to the motion, indulged in some irrelevant remarks, concluding with a passing commendation of the officers whose names had just been read, but added that he regretted the absence of one name from the list, he meant Mr Allen's, and sat down by moving that his friend Mr James Allen's name be added to the committee.3

Advocate-General, William Smillie, admitted it was he who'd dropped Allen, in order to keep the Governor Grey's support, saying Allen "was known to be opposed to his Excellency's policy and administration, and took every opportunity to thwart his Excellency's designs". In the ensuing debate, Grey stood up and left, along with his retinue. Allen was included the committee.3

Selling the "Register" : May-June 1845

James Allen took over the Register in the depressed economic times of the early 1840s. After purchasing the newspaper in 1842 "Mr. Allen bought a vacant block of land at the corner of Rundle and King William streets, and thereon erected a printing-office. The pressroom, publishing office, and accountants' room occupied the ground floor, and the upper apartment was used as a caseroom."4

Mr. Allen's first move, undertaken about six months after he had entered into possession, was radical and comprehensive. He reduced the price to sixpence, and doubled the number of issues. From this date the Register became a bi-weekly paper ... It continued so till the end of 1844, when a second and bolder experiment was made with it. Mr. Allen attempted a daily issue when such a thing was hardly known out of London. He reverted to the folio demy sheet of the original Register, and charged 3d. for four pages ... But the enterprise was premature, and a six months' trial of it prepared the paper for a second transfer.5

Whatever financial factors may have been at play, when James Allen went to sell, he explained that "important family business" required him in England. On 3 May 1845, he advertised the entire business of the Register, including almanacks and the "News Letter", copyrights, as well as the printing, bookbinding, and stationery aspects.6

A few weeks later notice was also given for a mortgagee sale of the Register office and other buildings (White, tailor; Bean's Shoe Warehouse) on the corner of King William and Rundle Streets (later to be known as Beehive Corner).7

George French Angas

At the same time, peripatetic artist George French Angas was in town on his second visit. He was young but connected – the son of George Fife Angas, chairman of the South Australian Company. In May 1845 French Angas had just returned to Adelaide from a four week sketching trip with Governor Grey and now he planned an exhibition. The Observer was delighted:

That talented artist Mr George French Angas, we learn, is about to proceed to England, there to publish, as soon as possible, his very interesting "Illustrations of South Australia," as well as those of New Zealand ... In the course of a week or two Mr Angas intends to exhibit his South Australian and New Zealand drawings to the public in the Legislative Council Chamber, by the permission and under the express patronage of his Excellency the Governor and Mrs Grey.8

Angas advertised his exhibition for three days from Wednesday 18 June with entrance a shilling and the catalogue sixpence. There was a footnote: "The proposed Exhibition will not include various views in the neighbourhood of Adelaide, and a number of other landscapes, which want of time previously to the intended exhibition, has prevented Mr Angas from completing, but which have been reserved to be finished with particular care."9

On 17 June, the morning before the exhibition, a letter by F.R. Nixon (under his nom-de-plume "NRF") was printed in the South Australian criticising Angas' landscapes and regretting that "another artist of less celebrity but of real talent – who resides in the colony in comparative obscurity – had not undertaken the landscape part; I allude to Mr Gill". Nixon went on to refer to Gill's busyness and specialisation in landscape painting – "He confines himself chiefly, I believe, to that one branch of the art" and he was "rapid – perhaps too much so – in the execution of his works".10 Nixon's observation of Gill as a landscape specialist who worked rapidly suggests the possibility that Gill was busy painting for Angas before the latter's imminent departure. Nixon's letter prompted energetic exchanges in the letters column.

Angas' exhibition concluded on 20 June and he left South Australia on 2 July on a packet schooner for Sydney.

Allen's New Project

At the same time James Allen was finalising his business affairs. He sold the Register to competitor John Stephens and on 21 June Allen bade farewell in his last issue as proprietor. In July, Stephens consolidated the Register with his own Observer office in Hindley Street. Shortly afterwards Gill sketched Allen's old building.

Thumbnail image for NLA NK2038/11

Former Register Office, now the chief mert. [i.e. merchant] tailor, King William & Rundle St., Adelaide | National Library of Australia NK2038/11 


With business and property sold, Allen had time and money for a new project. South Australia's depression was well over, the copper mines yielding, agriculture booming and the city was building. Allen would make the most of his enforced leave, make good use of his laboriously gathered facts and figures, and promote South Australia as a destination for investor and emigrant.

Allen wanted to show Adelaide: its bustling streets and prominent buildings, its villages, its progress – something of a then and now, but mostly now. He wanted to show the lead and copper mines: Glen Osmond, Burra Burra and Kapunda. And colonists' leisure: the horse races, the hunt and the annual agricultural show. He wanted to show landscape, kangaroo and emu. He planned to appeal to a popular English audience and determined on an illustrated lecture tour.

James Allen (in his own estimation) could draw, but if the job was to be done well, he needed an artist. It would not have been Angas, regardless of unavailability, fully occupied with his own quite different project, and whose friend and patron, Governor Grey, was no friend of Allen. Instead, Allen would use Rev. Samuel Gill's son, Samuel Thomas, an illustrator of the built environment. Gill had already done work for J.H. Angas at his property in October 1844, for E.J. Eyre in November 1844, for Frederick Dutton around January 1845 and more recently for George French Angas. Gill was also known by his Series of Adelaide Views . Gill was the right fit and Allen who commissioned Gill to produce a series of pictures under his guidance.

Allen had just five months between his last issue of the Register and his sailing for England, and Gill likely undertook Allen's work late in this period. On 16 September Allen wrote to William Giles, the Adelaide manager of the South Australian Company, proposing a promotional tour, and apparently received encouragement.11

In October and November Allen travelled to inspect all the operational mines, accompanied by Captain French of the ship Symmetry, Dr T.Y. Cotter and Gill.12 They especially inspected the newly commenced "Monster Copper Mine" at Burra Creek and the Register published Allen's report on his return.13 In Allen's absence George Grey departed South Australia to take up a new role as Governor of New Zealand.

July-November 1845 : Allen's Commission

James Allen's intention was to show the best of South Australia. And to his purpose Gill delivered 22 water colours, plus wash drawings. He had completed his largest ever commission – one in which his client demanded much say, as any newspaper editor might and as James Allen unfailingly did. Allen ensured everything looked busy, prosperous, tidy, successful, civilised.

Even a hemisphere change was no problem. To show off the streets, Gill highlighted the preferred (northern) sides of Hindley Street (AGSA 0.642) and Rundle Street (0.647), having the sun shine from the south. Some in an English audience wouldn't suspect a thing.

Thumbnail image for AGSA 0.647
Rundle Street, Adelaide | Art Gallery of South Australia 0.647

Gill handed over the final painting: Rundle Street. The prominent building is the one James Allen himself owned and built: the former home of his Register newspaper.

The scene has two lines of interest: Rundle Street itself (leading away) and King William Street (across) with its parallel shadows. These lines intersect, drawing our eye to the centre foreground and two characters in conversation. They stand bang in the middle. One man looks towards the viewer; he has curly hair, mutton chop sideburns and carries a riding whip. The other man wears a checked jacket and high riding boots, has a riding crop tucked high up under one arm and checks the newspaper. In the left foreground, at a bullock dray, a couple of men load or unload an unwieldy sack. It is not marked "SAC" as might be a wool bale belonging to the South Australian Company. Instead it is marked "SG 200".

Two men in the busy middle of the intersection of King William and Rundle; another pair in apparent argument over pick up or delivery of "SG 200". This is not just any gentleman of business checking the newspaper. He is the newspaper man, the (late) newspaper proprietor, the (now) commissioner of paintings, James Allen. And the man he is in conversation with, whose gaze is fixed firmly back towards the viewer? Here is the artist. Artist and newspaper man engaged in the street; a commission complete. James Allen had the best sales brochure. And Sam Gill's pay was in the dray.

200 guineas?14 Allen said of Gill's pictures that they were "executed ... under his own superintendence, at great expense".12

"SG200" wasn't the only miniscule cryptic message left by Gill. The wool bales in one watercolour (AGSA 0.940) are clearly enough marked "SAC" for the South Australian Company. But AGSA 0.642 has "SG", "STG 200" and "SG 1". AGSA 0.647 has three sacks marked "SG", "SA (or SG) 141 (or '4?)" and "SG 200". In AGSA 0.944 a sack on the verandah is labelled "SG". In AGSA 0.643 wool bales are marked "BNO", "BN" and "NO". In AGSA 0.938 a barrel seems to be marked "SG". Reminders everywhere!

James Allen in his checked jacket appears as a major or minor character in several of the watercolours, although he's not apparent in the washes. He is especially noticeable in "Kapunda Mine" (AGSA 0.942).

Sailed for England via The Cape

Just before Allen's departure for England, his trip was quite informally described by the Register as "partly on a family errand".15 (Perhaps the errand was to collect daughter Annie who would later return with them to Adelaide from England.) On 27 November, James Allen, Mrs Mary Allen and son James junior sailed in the brig Sans Pareille for London via The Cape. The cargo included 48 tons of copper ore from the Kapunda Mine – Burra's "Monster" mine would soon eclipse that – and 535 bales of wool from nine different exporters.16 W.A. Cawthorne diarises on 8 November 1845 that Allen took some of his Aboriginal "implements". And he took a kangaroo.

Stopping over at The Cape, on 5 March 1846 Allen trialled his lecture on the locals. Sam Sly's African Journal reported:

A lecture was given last evening by Mr James Allen, in the Commercial Exchange Rooms, on the "Pastoral Commercial and Mining Progress of South Australia," which a six years' residence at Adelaide, as Editor of one of the principal Journals (the South Australian Register) had enabled him to gather, and to ornament with fluency and intelligence. A kangaroo, brought from that district, added charm and a curiosity to his mission, particularly as it had been announced, that the animal "was to speak for himself." But it merely danced the new Polka. Twenty-two faithful and spirited views of the City of Adelaide, in water colours, painted by Mr Gill, were exhibited, which afforded palpable and striking proofs of the sudden rise and prosperity of the colony.17

It was a fair rehearsal for England.

Allen in England

Sans Pareille docked in London on 13 May 1846 and Allen set to work. The next editorial of The South Australian News enthusiastically supported Allen's proposal for a lecture tour as an efficient means of promoting emigration and investment.

The valuable paintings and sketches which he has brought from the Colony, most of them taken under his own directions, and from spots visited by himself and by Mr. Gill, the clever South Australia artist, together with numerous collection of objects of natural history, will all be made available to the illustration of this series of Lectures."12

Allen's pitch was successful and he won the support of "The Committee for the Diffusion of Information respecting South Australia" for a twelve month lecture tour of the United Kingdom. The committee aimed to raise £250 (having already £90 in hand) and noted:

Mr. Allen has brought with him a large number of Drawings, executed by a Colonial Artist under his own superintendence, at great expense, illustrative of the progress of Colonization in the Town and Country Districts of the Province, and is encouraged to exhibit them as a Series of Dissolving Views in connection with his Lectures.12

Dissolving views were a projection by magic lantern in which one image dissolved, or transitioned, into another. The following month Allen was ready.

Mr Allen's Lectures will be illustrated by Maps, Plans, Diagrams, &c., &c., and by a series of dissolving views, in which will be exhibited – two views of Port Adelaide – from Six to Eight views of the city of Adelaide, and a number of others connected with the mines, and the country districts generally. These dissolving views have been prepared from drawings executed in the colony, and under Mr Allen's immediate superintendence, and give the character of South Australian scenery both in town and country districts with the greatest fidelity and accuracy.18

This advertisement hints that the glass slide views were prepared in London. Thanks to Allen himself, we know the titles of each slide. In October, at Allen's request, London's South Australian News printed his intinerary, lecture syllabus and a complete list of the 36 accompanying dissolving views.19 To put something into the hands of interested attendees Allen also published a pamphlet: South Australia as It Is and How to Get to It : Compiled for the Use of Intending Emigrants of All Classes to This Thriving and Highly Prosperous Colony | State Library of Victoria  He lectured in London, Liverpool, Leeds, Bradford and Portsmouth, and the tour was reported a success.

His business in England done, James Allen, his wife and both children sailed from London on the barque Competitor on 16 June 1847 and returned to Adelaide.

Analysis : Identifying Allen's Pictures

How can Gill's pictures for James Allen be identified?

Appleyard's Analysis

Ron Appleyard answered much of this question in his Appendix A : James Allen's commission to S.T. Gill for illustrations for a series of 'Lectures on South Australia' given in England 1846-47. He cross-referenced three main sources:

I've been able to take Appleyard's analysis a little further.

Identifying More Watercolours

Of Appleyard's list of 17 AGSA-SA Company watercolours, two can be omitted as not being part of Allen's commission: the 1848 Port Adelaide picture (0.646) and the 1844 Moorunde picture probably for Eyre (0.35). The remainding 15 are all of the same size, about 27cm by 40cm, adding weight to them having been painted at the same time for Allen.

I add two watercolours of Port Adelaide from NLA that I think formed part of Allen's commission, while noting they are a little smaller at about 22cm by 34cm. This brings the watercolour count back to 17.

(In his dissolving views list, Appleyard also included two watercolours (cat. 72, 73) from the University of Adelaide collection but they do not seem to be from the Allen commission and are the subject of further research.)

Some pictures still elude identification and not all may be extant. One of the 36 lecture views that totally eludes is "Albert Town, a village on the road from the Port". Another is "The Stringy Bark Forest" and although I have been unable to identify Allen's specific work, there are others of this theme often repeated by Gill.

NLA's Wash Drawing Collection

NLA's dozen wash drawings (R107 to R118) are smaller than the watercolours – at about 12cm by 20cm. Appleyard thought it "reasonable to assume that Gill developed his watercolours and the transparencies (dissolving views) in his studio from sketches made on the spot such as the [NLA] twelve".11 But I think NLA's wash drawings show greater refinement than one might expect from a field sketch and perhaps Gill's first "on the spot" efforts would have been pencilled in a sketchbook. The wash drawings may have been the basis for a London artist to prepare the glass slides, but they seem not to have been the sole source as many dissolving views are represented by a watercolour alone.

Instead, the wash drawings may have been part of the commission process, with Gill initially scoping the views and Allen providing his "superintendence". This would be a reasonable explanation for the two different views of Sturt's departure (discussed below).

James Allen likely took the wash drawings to England with him in 1845. NLA purchased them from W.A. Bell in London in 1932. (For more on Bell, see S.T. Gill and Art History's Wrong Turn .) Where were they between times? We know about Allen's watercolours – after the lecture tour they remained with the South Australian Company in London. But it's possible Allen kept the less valuable wash drawings as a personal souvenir. Allen left South Australia in the early 1860s for Tasmania and Victoria. He died in Victoria in 1886 and his widow in 1887. Perhaps these pictures remained in Australia at least until then, after which they may have then stayed in Melbourne with the Allen grandson or passed to their daughter in Birmingham, England. This is, however, all speculation. We know neither when Allen parted with these pictures, nor how Bell obtained them in England.

Other Related Pictures

I also identify other pictures that may have been used by Allen in his lectures, such as ones by William Light and F.R. Nixon.

The Puzzle of Sturt's Departure

Another puzzle of Allen's commission is the two different views of the ceremonial departure on Saturday 10 August 1844 of Charles Sturt's Great Northern Expedition.

Why are there two versions?

The watercolour has an anachronistic tell. The large red double storey building at left is that of dentist surgeon Robert Norman. It was built between April and July 1845, so the streetscape is a year later than that ceremonial event. So, both watercolour and the wash were executed in late 1845. These are not 1844 "on the spot" pictures by Gill. (There is no evidence that Gill based either on an "on the spot" sketch. In fact the omission of the muddy streets of 10 August 1844 is some evidence against this.)

I wonder if Allen saw first the wash and determined Gill's vacant block view was too rustic, untidy and unbuilt for his purposes. It seems quite possible that Gill had already drawn, among his many general street views for Allen, one of King William Street looking south. Allen could have asked Gill to change it and add in the characters of Sturt's grand cavalcade. Much more tidy, civilised society and go ahead!

Angas' Use of Allen's Gill Pictures

George French Angas also liked this more elegant version of Sturt's Departure. He probably saw Allen's commissioned pictures after Allen's arrival in London in May 1846.

There was then still plenty time for Angas to make changes to his plan for "South Australia Illustrated". The preface is dated 1 July 1846 and the book's plates seem to have been delivered in three stages. Angas's great work was in ten parts and Australian advertisements indicate parts 1-3 were shipped from London around December 1846 and the last of the ten parts perhaps mid-1847.20

Before Angas completed his grand work, he borrowed two of Gill's paintings from Allen (or from the South Australian Company, of which his father George Fife Angas was chairman). French Angas included them in the latter parts of "South Australia Illustrated", attributing them to "T.S. Gill". A third picture – Gill's Port Adelaide – was also conscripted as plate 7 in part 2 but was attributed to Angas himself.

Thumbnail image for SLSA B 15276/54
The departure of Captain Sturt on his expedition into the interior | State Library of South Australia B 15276/54 


"South Australia Illustrated" plate 54 (in part 10 of 10). Attributed to "T.S. Gill".

Thumbnail image for SLSA B 15276/41
Adelaide. Hindley Street from the corner of King William Street | State Library of South Australia B 15276/41 


"South Australia Illustrated" plate 41 (in part 7 of 10). Attributed to "T.S. Gill".


Thumbnail image for NLA NK4742
Port Adelaide, South Australia | National Library of Australia NK4742 


"South Australia Illustrated" plate 7 (in part 2 of 10). Attributed to Angas although it reproduces Gill's watercolour in detail.

To see how Angas used these and more Gill pictures in London see: George French Angas in London and S.T. Gill .


References

Appleyard, Ron. & Fargher, Barbara. & Radford, Ron. & Art Gallery of South Australia. (1986). S.T. Gill : the South Australian years, 1839-1852. Adelaide : Art Gallery of South Australia

Cawthorne, W. A Literarium diarium. [microform] W & F Pascoe, Balgowlah, N.S.W, 1975.


Notes

1. Southern Australian, 19 August 1842: 3. <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71621870>
2. The Adelaide Examiner, 18 August 1842: 2. <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article263774051>
3. Adelaide Observer, 16 September 1843: 6. <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article158917535>
4. South Australian Register, 3 June 1887: 6. <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article46097288>
5. South Australian Register, 1 January 1870: 5. <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article39197323>
6. South Australian Register, 3 May 1845: 2. <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article73843482>
7. Adelaide Observer, 24 May 1845: 1. <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article158920254>
8. Adelaide Observer, 31 May 1845: 6. <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article158920277>
9. Adelaide Observer 14 June 1845: 1. <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article158920370>. Newspaper reviews mentioned South Australian landscapes but not any pictures of the built environment of Adelaide or the Port. However the absence of an extant catalogue makes it impossible to know what pictures may have been left out.
10. South Australian, 17 June 1845: 3. <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71601839>
11. Appleyard 105.
12. The South Australian News (London), June 1846: 41, 44. Accessed 16 Aug 2021. <https://www.nla.gov.au/ferguson/14606046/18460600/00000006/1-4.pdf>
13. South Australian Register, 11 October 1845: 2. <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article73842194>
14. 200 guineas seems a high price, however in 1851 William Vansittart paid Gill 40 guineas for four watercolours of his horses. Adelaide Times, 4 March 1851: 3. <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article207067491>
15. South Australian Register, 5 November 1845: 3. <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article27451260>>
16. South Australian, 28 November 1845: 2. <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71603371>
17. South Australian Register, 10 June 1846: 3. <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article27453045>. The report from The Cape counts 22 watercolours but does not list them.
18. The South Australian News (London), July 1846: 52. Accessed 16 Aug 2021. <https://www.nla.gov.au/ferguson/14606046/18460700/00000007/1-4.pdf>
19. The South Australian News (London), October 1846: 76, 77. Accessed 16 Aug 2021. <https://www.nla.gov.au/ferguson/14606046/18461000/00000010/1-4.pdf> <https://www.nla.gov.au/ferguson/14606046/18461000/00000010/5-8.pdf>
20. Angas seemingly depatched "South Australia Illustrated" in three batches. Parts 1-3 (the first batch) are first noted in Sydney in April 1847 and shortly afterwards in Adelaide. These parts remain advertised until the arrival of parts 4-6 (the second batch) in July 1847, having come on the ship "John Bartlett" which left London in April. The full ten parts are first advertised in Sydney in November 1847. Plate 54, Sturt's Departure, was in part 10, and was likely to have been shipped from London between April and August 1847.
[These many advertisements can be found in Trove digitised newspapers: <https://trove.nla.gov.au/search/advanced/category/newspapers?keyword=angas%20%22south%20australia%20illustrated%22~4&date.from=1847-04-01&date.to=1847-12-31&sortBy=dateAsc> Accessed 16 Aug 2021.]



Allen's Lectures – Dissolving Views

This is an analysis of the published list of 36 dissolving views. This analysis was previously done by Ron Appleyard. I add further suggestions, including works by William Light and F.R. Nixon.

The dissolving views are numbered Ln.vv, where n is the lecture number and vv is the number of the dissolving view in the lecture.


List of Works

This list of works includes Gill watercolours and wash drawings catalogued here as part of the James Allen commission, plus some other works related to James Allen's lecture dissolving views.

You can scroll down to see all pictures along with detailed notes or click a link to jump to a specific work from the list. Detailed notes include a link to the map location for the view where available.

Works are listed in order of Allen's lecture / dissolving view.

Dates in the descriptive text are generally in yyyy-mm-dd format and more specifically in Extended Date/Time Format (EDTF) .

Catalogue : Allen Watercolours


Catalogue : Allen Wash Drawings


Other Works Related to Allen's Dissolving Views


Catalogue : Allen Watercolours

18 Gill watercolours thought to have been taken to England by James Allen.

Port Adelaide | NLA NK208

Thumbnail image for NLA NK208Port Adelaide, South Australia | National Library of Australia NK208 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-07/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. n/a
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

A view generally south-east across Hindmarsh Reach (Gawler Reach) to Port Adelaide. The Mount Lofty Ranges are in the background. Prominent are the South Australian Company stores (McLaren warehouse, red building, left) and the Customs House (white building, centre). Between them are the flagstaff and the canal beside Queen's Wharf. On the river side of the Customs House are the Queen's wharf warehouses. At right is the confiscated French ship "Ville de Bordeaux". To the left of McLaren warehouse is a shed on McLaren wharf.

This is Gill's more favoured angle across the Reach showing the north and west sides of McLaren warehouse.

This watercolour is almost identical to plate 7 in Angas' "South Australia Illustrated". The smoke rising from the foredeck of the "Ville de Bordeaux" is identical in both works and both use Gill's typical motifs: the discarded bottles and basket, the discarded spar (in Gill, but mistaken for a fishing rod by Angas) and its trailing S-shaped line. The McLaren wharf shed is present in both, though not well represented in the lithograph. The pictures mainly differ in the people in the foreground right.

This is almost certainly the original Gill for Angas's plate. Angas took some Gill paintings with him when he left Adelaide – others are acknowledged in "South Australia Illustrated" – but this one is misattributed to Angas. This is not a copy of Angas by Gill, who by the time the plates arrived in Adelaide in May 1847 was painting the updated scene with the rebuilt Port Tavern (AGSA 0.655).

For more on why this is the orginal for Angas, see S.T. Gill's Port Adelaide .

This is likely one of James Allen's "Two views of Port Adelaide in 1846". (Allen left Adelaide in November 1845, so "in 1846" is his equivalent of "as it now is".) "Mr Allen then described the port generally, and pointed out the situation of most of its buildings, with the names of their occupants or proprietors. This he afterwards more fully illustrated by two drawings of the port, one taken from its approach by water, and the other from the road leading from the port to town." (The South Australian News (London), July 1846: 50.)

Map | S. T. Gill - Port Adelaide

222


Port Adelaide | NLA NK210

Thumbnail image for NLA NK210Port Adelaide, South Australia | National Library of Australia NK210 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-07/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. n/a
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

A view of Port Adelaide looking north up the "canal" with the flagstaff (with crows nest) at the end. This short canal ran off the Port River in line with the Commercial Road and between Queen's Wharf (left of picture) and McLaren Wharf (right). Prominent are the South Australian company store (McLaren Warehouse - two storey red building at right) and the Customs House (two storey white building at left). At near right is "R. Venn, butcher" and the "Comercial (sic.) Inn".

Appleyard (p78) notes the Allen commission watercolour "Agricultural and Horticultural Show, Adelaide 1845" (AGSA 0.641) has a pencil drawing of this Port view on the back. The pencil drawing is almost certainly the preliminary sketch for this watercolour, which can consequently also be included in the Allen commission.

This is likely one of James Allen's "Two views of Port Adelaide in 1846". (Allen left Adelaide in November 1845, so "in 1846" is his equivalent of "as it now is".) "Mr Allen then described the port generally, and pointed out the situation of most of its buildings, with the names of their occupants or proprietors. This he afterwards more fully illustrated by two drawings of the port, one taken from its approach by water, and the other from the road leading from the port to town." (The South Australian News (London), July 1846: 50.)

The two Port Adelaide views – NLA NK208 and NK210 – are likely part of James Allen's commission. The subject matter corresponds with lecture 1, dissolving views 3-4.

This is a scene twin with AGSA 0.656. Interestingly the South Australian Company building loft door is half open in both.

Titled "Dry dock, Adelaide" in Nan Kivell's "draft catalogue" (104).

Map | S. T. Gill - Port Adelaide

224


Government House, North Terrace, Adelaide | AGSA 0.34

Thumbnail image for AGSA 0.34Government House, North Terrace, Adelaide | Art Gallery of South Australia 0.34 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-07/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. 42
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

Government House is on the Park Land above North Terrace and to the east of King William Street. Here it is viewed from the south-east from within the grounds. The Governor's four-wheeled carriage is at the entrance. This is the same view as NLA NK2038/23.

This work is identified as part of James Allen's commission because of its South Australian Company provenance and subject matter correspondence with lecture 1, dissolving view 6.

Map | S. T. Gill - Adelaide

30


North Terrace, Adelaide, looking south-east from Government House Guardhouse | AGSA 0.939

Thumbnail image for AGSA 0.939North Terrace, Adelaide, looking south-east from Government House Guardhouse | Art Gallery of South Australia 0.939 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-07/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. 43
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

Looking (a little south of) east along North Terrace from the intersection with King William Street.

In the centre foreground is a butcher's boy - with blue striped shirt, white jacket and straw hat - chasing the dogs that stole the meat. The man reading the newspaper (right) is likely intended to be James Allen. At left of picture is the guardhouse for Government House.

At right is the Post Office. Of the next two buildings one is probably McGowan's school. The thatched roof building was later in 1849 occupied by Dr. James Phillips (both acre 17). In the distance (left) are the imposing buildings (acre 19) originally intended for the South Australian School Society, but used as offices for the South Australian Company from February 1845 (South Australian, 25 February 1845, p.3.) The SA Company buildings on Rundle Street are centre distance and typically heightened by Gill.

Unusually for this series there are no Aboriginal people in this picture.

This work is identified as part of James Allen's commission because of its South Australian Company provenance and subject matter correspondence with lecture 1, dissolving views 8-12.

Map | S. T. Gill - Adelaide

25


Hindley Street, Adelaide, looking west from King William Street | AGSA 0.642

Thumbnail image for AGSA 0.642Hindley Street, Adelaide, looking west from King William Street | Art Gallery of South Australia 0.642 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-10/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. 44
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

This is a view to the west along Hindley Street from its intersection with King William Street.

Building signs on the left (south) side leading away from the viewer are: Register Printing Office (... ister ... ting ... ficce) and Observer Office. On the right (north) side are: Auction Mart, Payne's Auction (Mart Tavern), Lowe (chemist), Waterloo House and C. S. Platts, with the next sign (illegible) being the two storey whitestone fronted brick building of Robert Sanders, draper. Platts was at Waterloo House (acre 48) to April 1844 after which the building was occupied by John Stephens who also moved his Observer newspaper office there. The building at near left was a store formerly occupied by Murray and Greig and also Stocks. After buying James Allen's SA Register, John Stephens consolidated the Register and Observer and General Printing Office in this building from 20 September 1845. The Auction Mart at right is at it appeared after the whitestone front was added in December 1844 and before the eastern collonade was added in December 1845. We can thus date this scene around October / November 1845.

The name "C.S. Platts" on Waterloo House is likely an anachronistic nod to the manner in which Stephens supplanted Platts' business in which he allowed the Platts name to be associated with his identical business.

The parked bullock dray at left of picture contains sacks with unclear labels, seemingly reading SG, STG 200 and SG 1. This seems to be a reference to James Allen's commission - see also AGSA 0.647. This picture is part of the James Allen commission. The central character on the horse in the checked jacket is likely James Allen.

The Aboriginal man right foreground is draped in a government issue blue striped blanket.

This work is identified as part of James Allen's commission because of its South Australian Company provenance and subject matter correspondence with lecture 1, dissolving views 8-12.

Map | S. T. Gill - Adelaide

16


Rundle Street, Adelaide, looking west (photo SLSA B 6798) | AGSA 0.940

Thumbnail image for AGSA 0.940Rundle Street looking West across Frome Street, Adelaide | Art Gallery of South Australia 0.940 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-07/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. 47
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

Looking west along Rundle Street. On the left is Bent Street and further along the two storey building is Miss Bathgates' boarding house on the corner of Pulteney Street (Acre 87). On the right are the South Australian Company's Tavistock Buildings (Acre 35) before Tavistock Street.

Appleyard gives the title of this watercolour, AGSA 0.940, as "(Rundle Street, looking west across Frome Street, Adelaide)". Frome Street was developed from Tavistock Street in 1962 and as such is anachronistic when used in the title. I suggest an alternative title.

The image and link is of SLSA's black and white photo of AGSA 0.940 which is not available online.

This work is identified as part of James Allen's commission because of its South Australian Company provenance and subject matter correspondence with lecture 1, dissolving views 8-12.

Map | S. T. Gill - Adelaide

26


Hindley Street, Adelaide, looking east | AGSA 0.944

Thumbnail image for AGSA 0.944Hindley Street, Adelaide, looking east | Art Gallery of South Australia 0.944 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-07/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. 45
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

Looking east along Hindley Street with the Mount Lofty Ranges in the background. The four substantial two-storey buildings at right are on Acre 67. The double storey white building with two chimneys at left is Clarendon House (Acre 56). Nearer left is the Royal Oak hotel (Acre 57) and the humble building in front is probably a shop or the business of W.W.G. Nicholls. Down the bottom of the hill is the Morphett Street intersection. At centre foreground are Adelaidians of means: two couples and a white and black Newfoundland. At foreground right is a man and a dog of lesser means.

On the verandah of the near right building is a sack labelled "SG".

This work is identified as part of James Allen's commission because of its South Australian Company provenance and subject matter correspondence with lecture 1, dissolving views 8-12.

Map | S. T. Gill - Adelaide

23


Trinity Church, Adelaide 1845 | AGSA 0.648

Thumbnail image for AGSA 0.648Trinity Church, Adelaide 1845 | Art Gallery of South Australia 0.648 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-08/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. n/a
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

Looking east along North Terrace from just west of Morphett Street (at right) featuring Trinity Church (Acre 9) after it was rebuilt in mid-1845. Families walk from the direction of North Adelaide to the church. At left a man carries a baby - seemingly in a christening dress. At right a man with his dog on a lead - likely intended as the artist himself - walks away from church, but looks back over his shoulder.

Partly shown at right is The Subscription Library which occupied the former offices of George Morphett from about April 1845. At the far end of the street is the two storey white wall of the Bank of South Australia. Near left is a continuation of Morphett Street leading across the river to North Adelaide. The Police Office is left middle-ground.

There are no Aboriginal people apparent in this scene.

The opposite view west along North Terrace is shown in AGSA 0.938.

This work is identified as part of James Allen's commission because of its South Australian Company provenance and subject matter correspondence with lecture 1, dissolving views 8-12.

Map | S. T. Gill - Adelaide

22


King William Street, Adelaide, looking North, 1845 | AGSA 0.643

Thumbnail image for AGSA 0.643King William Street, Adelaide, looking North, 1845 | Art Gallery of South Australia 0.643 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-07/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. n/a
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

The view is north along King William Street towards North Terrace from a point on the corner of Hindley Street.

At the end of the street is the Government flagstaff. At left is the Auction Mart (before construction of the eastern colonnade). The Post Office is at the far right end of King William Street. The open four wheeler carriage belongs to the Governor, contrasting in status with the goat cart right foreground. The scene is dominated by busy colonists; there seem to be two Aboriginal people but they are barely visible.

"SALT W..." and some other letters (possibly STG) appear on the side of the building at right (Acre 46). It could also be George Robert Thompson's Salt Works which was "in King William Street opposite Bentham Neales's Stockyards". In the Sturt's Narrative plate a shop of Robert Venn appears at this location. Venn imported salt.

"CARON" appears in the Auction Mart window. Three wool bales are marked BNO, BN and NO. The significance of these inscriptions is unknown.

An almost identical but later view is the plate in Sturt's Narrative (vol 2: facing p.147). It differs in including the Auction Mart eastern collonade (added late 1845 / early 1846).

This work is identified as part of James Allen's commission because of its South Australian Company provenance and subject matter correspondence with lecture 3, dissolving views 2-3.

Map | S. T. Gill - Adelaide

17


Kermode Street, North Adelaide, looking East, 1845 (photo SLSA B 3696) | AGSA 0.645

Thumbnail image for AGSA 0.645Kermode Street, North Adelaide, looking East, 1845 (photo SLSA B 3696) | Art Gallery of South Australia 0.645 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-07/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. n/a
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

Kermode Street, North Adelaide, viewed from Palmer Place, with the treed Park Lands in the background and the Mount Lofty Ranges in the distance. In the centre of the picture is the "Queen's Head" public house (117-119 Kermode Street, acre 710) with its house sign out front. James Allen, who commissioned this series of paintings from Gill in 1845, lived in Kermode Street.

The image and link is of SLSA's black and white photo of AGSA 0.645 which is not available online.

This work is identified as part of James Allen's commission because of its South Australian Company provenance and subject matter correspondence with lecture 2, dissolving view 7.

Map | S. T. Gill - Adelaide

20


Kapunda Mine 1845 | AGSA 0.942

Thumbnail image for AGSA 0.942Kapunda Mine 1845 | Art Gallery of South Australia 0.942 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-10/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. 57
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

The workings of the Kapunda Mine with bullock drays bringing supplies and returning with copper ore to Port Adelaide. Extensive labourer accomodation is in the background. Kapunda copper was discovered on the land of C.H. Bagot and F.S. Dutton on the River Light. Bagot's Kapunda mine began operation in January 1844 after the barque "Augustus" arrived from England with good news on their ore assays.

The long buildings (and seemingly the cottage) that appear in the background are also sketched in AGSA 7110D11. (The extent of these buildings does not appear in pictures of B.T. Solly, G.F. Angas or in Dutton's 1846 book.)

This mine was described in Allen's 1845 Almanac, p.163.

This picture is part of the James Allen commission. The foreground character in the checked jacket is likely James Allen and he is in conversation with one of his companions of his October 1845 trip to the mines.

This work is identified as part of James Allen's commission because of its South Australian Company provenance and subject matter correspondence with lecture 2, dissolving views 10-12.

28


Burra Burra Mine | AGSA 0.941

Thumbnail image for AGSA 0.941Burra Burra Mine | Art Gallery of South Australia 0.941 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-10/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. 58
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

The scene is the newly begun Burra Burra copper mine around October 1845. The copper ore body is close to the surface and the basic manual labour provides quick returns. Bullock drays are being loaded with ore to be brought back to Adelaide for export.

James Allen visited here on 4 October and a week later his report was published in his former newspaper, the "Register". This picture corresponds exceedingly well with Allen's description. Allen's report states that "four dray-loads of ore had already been forwarded to Adelaide, and that upwards of ten loads more were piled up on the surface, and ready for transmission, although only eight men had been employed in raising it, and that, too, during the period of a single week. The face of the hill, on which the Mine is situated, had been opened in three separate places; first, about a hundred or a hundred and fifty yards above the great "bunch of ore" which gave rise to the name of the "Monster Mine;" secondly, at the extreme lower end of the above-named great bunch of surface ore ; and, again, about three or four hundred yards below it, and nearer to the base of the hill. At the first of these spots, a square hole of about four or five feet in width had been dug with a view of ascertaining the presence of ore near the surface... At the second of the three spots mentioned, or at what is called, par excellence, the "Monster lode," an opening had been made in the side of the hill of about sixteen feet in width, and six feet in depth ; but, in attempting to follow the lode, it had gradually increased to twenty-one feet in width, and presented every appearance of continuing to widen, without any chance whatever at present of ascertaining its depth. At the third and last of these spots, which, as before stated, was about three or four hundred yards nearer the base of the hill, another opening had been made of about fifteen feet in width, and five feet in depth, and from this a mass of ore fully equal to that of the Monster lode had already been raised. At each of these two last spots, the ore had been dug down with picks and gads, very much after the fashion of digging clay for making bricks, and had been wheeled out and piled up on the surface ready for cartage to Adelaide." (South Australian Register, 11 October 1845: 2. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article73842194)

The views seems similar to Gill's 1847 general views which were NNE to the mine of the surface operations, so I give the same geolocation, although this viewpoint is less certain.

This busy scene is very unlikely to be the Princess Royal mine as suggested by Appleyard, since it had not really got off the ground before James Allen's departure. (South Australian, 5 December 1845: 3. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71603408)

This work is identified as part of James Allen's commission because of its South Australian Company provenance and subject matter correspondence with lecture 2, dissolving views 10-12.

27


Glen Osmond Mine 1845 | AGSA 0.943

Thumbnail image for AGSA 0.943Glen Osmond Mine 1845 | Art Gallery of South Australia 0.943 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-10/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. 56
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

This painting is of the Glen Osmond lead and silver mine on Osmond Gilles' Section 295 and shows the "Victoria" shaft (Both & Drew, 29). Significant mining was conducted from 1844. This mine was described in Allen's 1845 Almanac, p.163.

In this picture are Aboriginal people, a scytheman, cattle and several buildings (middle left and distance).

This work is identified as part of James Allen's commission because of its South Australian Company provenance and subject matter correspondence with lecture 2, dissolving views 10-12.

Map | S. T. Gill - Adelaide District

29


Bank of South Australia and Legislative Council Room, North Terrace, Adelaide | AGSA 0.938

Thumbnail image for AGSA 0.938Bank of South Australia and Legislative Council Room, North Terrace, Adelaide | Art Gallery of South Australia 0.938 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-07/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. n/a
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

Looking west along North Terrace, from a position just to the west of King William Street, with the Bank of South Australia (Acre 15) at left of picture and the Legislative Council Room at right. Many top hatted gentlemen are outside these two major buildings. Trinity Church is in the distance. A small "S" or "5" appears on the barrel and the text could be "SG".

The Council Room was used in June 1845 for George French Angas' art exhibition and in February 1847 for the local artists' exhibition.

The opposite view east along North Terrace is shown in AGSA 0.648.

This work is identified as part of James Allen's commission because of its South Australian Company provenance and subject matter correspondence with lecture 3, dissolving view 1.

Map | S. T. Gill - Adelaide

24


Rundle Street, Adelaide | AGSA 0.647

Thumbnail image for AGSA 0.647Rundle Street, Adelaide | Art Gallery of South Australia 0.647 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-07/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. 46
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

The view is east along Rundle Street from the intersection with King William Street.

In the distance are the Mount Lofty Ranges. At left is the distinctive white building used as the Register newspaper office of James Allen (on acre 46 and later known as the Beehive). Past it on the left side are premises signed "White, Tailor", "Bean Boot", "Ottaway" and "Beans Leather Warehouse". At centre of picture are the red double storey South Australian Company buldings (acre 44) on the far (east) corner of Stephens Place; Gill always uses white highlights when painting this building complex. It is signed "Soloman's Auction Mart" in Gill's humour or problematic spelling - Emanuel Solomon ran that Auction Mart. At foreground right is "Faulding Chemist" and the light past it is the newly opened Red Lion Hotel (both acre 79).

George White, tailor, operated his Rundle Street store from June 1843 to July 1849. George Bean was in Rundle Street from about 1842 as a currier and tanner, expanding into boot- and shoe-making and leather-cutting before moving around the corner in May 1846. George Ottaway, a master baker, was in Rundle Street in 1845. Francis Hardy Faulding opened his chemist and pharmacy business from 17 May 1845. We can thus date this work to between May and November 1845.

The prominent Register office was built by James Allen. "Mr. Allen bought a vacant block of land at the corner of Rundle and King William streets, and thereon erected a printing-office. The pressroom, publishing office, and accountants' room occupied the ground floor, and the upper apartment was used as a caseroom. The block is known to latter-day Adelaideans as the Beehive corner, and the building as it now stands is the same as when Mr. Allen had it, with the exception that shopfronts have been added."
South Australian Register, 3 June 1887: 6. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article46097288

On the dray at left, three sacks are marked "SG", "SA (or SG) 141 (or '4?)" and "SG 200".

This picture is part of the James Allen commission. The foreground character in the checked jacket is James Allen and he is in conversation with Gill.

This work is identified as part of James Allen's commission because of its South Australian Company provenance and subject matter correspondence with lecture 3, dissolving views 2-3.

Map | S. T. Gill - Adelaide

18


Sturt's Overland Expedition leaving Adelaide, August 10th, 1844 | AGSA 0.644

Thumbnail image for AGSA 0.644Sturt's Overland Expedition leaving Adelaide, August 10th, 1844 | Art Gallery of South Australia 0.644 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-07/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. 81
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

The scene is the departure from Adelaide of Charles Sturt's Great Northern Expedition on 10 August 1844.

Charles Sturt and other dignitaries are at the head of the procession, with Sturt wearing top hat and tails and riding his well-known grey horse. The newspaper reported Major O'Halloran, Captain Sturt and Judge Cooper led. The view is south along King William Street from the intersection with Hindley Street (right foreground) and Rundle Street (out of picture) and includes street frontages in Adelaide acres 78 (right) and 79 and 108 (left).

The large red double storey building (fourth from left) belonged to dentist surgeon Robert Norman and was built between April and July 1845. So this was not Gill painting "on the spot" in August 1844.

Other buildings are from left: W.H. George plumber and glazier (white stone front), possibly C. Hussey, Robert Norman surgeon dentist, vacant land, Day and Sons blacksmiths, Montefiore merchant. Buildings at right may include W. Richards tailor (opposite W.H. George) and Younghusband stores.

This painting was used by George French Angas for plate 54 in his "South Australia Illustrated" and attributed to "T.S. Gill". Although the painting could have been painted just in time for Angas' departure from Adelaide on 2 July 1845, there is strong provenance and other evidence for this being part of James Allen's commission. Allen left Adelaide for England in November 1845 and the painting was probably executed between July and November 1845. This implies Angas borrowed it from Allen or the South Australian Company when preparing the final installment of "South Australia Illustrated".

This picture is part of the James Allen commission. The character at left in the checked jacket is likely James Allen.

This work is identified as part of James Allen's commission because of its South Australian Company provenance and subject matter correspondence with lecture 3, dissolving view 4.

Map | S. T. Gill - Adelaide

248


Agricultural and Horticultural Show, Adelaide 1845 | AGSA 0.641

Thumbnail image for AGSA 0.641Agricultural and Horticultural Show, Adelaide 1845 | Art Gallery of South Australia 0.641 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-02/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. 69
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

The Agricultural and Horticultural Exhibition was held in Adelaide on Friday 14 February 1845 on the Park Lands to the northeast of the city. This is a front view of the exhibition showing the 120 foot long main pavillion and three smaller marquees set amongst the gum trees. At left foreground two men in front of a tree are sharing a pipe light.

Gill painted front views such as this one and also rear views showing the carriage entrance.

This picture is part of the James Allen commission. The right foreground character in the checked jacket may be James Allen.

This work is identified as part of James Allen's commission because of its South Australian Company provenance and subject matter correspondence with lecture 3, dissolving view 12.

Appleyard (p78) notes there is a pencil drawing of (Commercial Road) Port Adelaide on the reverse that is similar to AGSA 0.656 (dated 1847 by Gill). Appleyard's catalogue missed an almost identical watercolour, NLA NK210, and the pencil drawing is almost certainly the preliminary sketch for that 1845 watercolour, which can consequently be included in the James Allen commission.

Map | S. T. Gill - Adelaide

15


Catalogue : Allen Wash Drawings

Twelve wash drawings by Gill thought to have been taken to England by James Allen – he NLA dozen (R107 to R118).

Port Adelaide | NLA R115

Thumbnail image for NLA R115Port Adelaide | National Library of Australia R115 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-07/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. n/a
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

A view of Port Adelaide from the southern shore looking east. The prominent building is the South Australian Company store (McLaren warehouse) with McLaren Wharf in front. Queen's Wharf is nearer the viewer.

This work is inscribed by Gill on the reverse: "Mr Allen". It corresponds with James Allen's lecture 1, dissolving view 3-4.

Map | S. T. Gill - Port Adelaide

9


Old Govt. [i.e. Government] House | NLA R112

Thumbnail image for NLA R112Old Govt. [i.e. Government] House | National Library of Australia R112 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-07/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. n/a
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

A view of old Government House from across the River Torrens' dry bed, Old Government House - or "Government Hut" - was located above North Terrace at the top of King William Street and was built in 1837. A new government house was built nearby and occupied in May 1840. The old house burnt down in January 1841.

Contemporary illustrations of the earlier building are two similar views by Mary Hindmarsh and Martha Berkeley. There is also a slightly more distant view by John Michael Skipper (NLA PIC/12974/15). The view taken by all artists is from the River Torrens side where there was a fording place and is about SSE towards the back of the house.

Gill's wash drawing is 1845 (four years after the building burnt down) and shares much with Skipper's sketch - the roofless hut frame, tent, pair of trees between, and the foreground/middleground stump. It seems likely that Gill's picture is based on Skipper's (see NLA PIC Drawer 10581 #PIC/12974/15 for further discussion).

James Allen's lecture / dissolving view: 1/5. Corresponding watercolour: none.

Map | S. T. Gill - Adelaide

7


New Govt [i.e. Government] House from So. East | NLA R114

Thumbnail image for NLA R114New Govt [i.e. Government] House from So. East | National Library of Australia R114 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-07/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. n/a
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

Government House is on the Park Land above North Terrace and to the east of King William Street. Here it is viewed from the south-east from North Terrace. The Governor's four-wheeled carriage is at the entrance. Prominent in the scene is the fenced off promenade.

In front of the [Government] house, and separated from its grounds by only a large sunken ditch, is a pleasant promenade, neatly railed off from the road and gravelled. This promenade is deservedly a favoured resort with the townspeople, who come out here after the heat of the day is over. (Wilkinson 1848, 20-21)

It seems that Gill has erred in his shading at the left of the building, thus confusing the structure.

James Allen's lecture / dissolving view: 1/6. Corresponding watercolour: similar but not same scene: SLNSW PX*D 383 f.1.

Map | S. T. Gill - Adelaide

8


H.M.'s Goal, Adelaide, So. A. [i.e. H.M.'s Gaol, Adelaide, South Australia] | NLA R107

Thumbnail image for NLA R107H.M.'s Goal, Adelaide, So. A. [i.e. H.M.'s Gaol, Adelaide, South Australia] | National Library of Australia R107 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-07/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. n/a
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

This is a view of the gaol looking to the north from the end of the track that ran from North Terrace near Morphett Street.

The gaol was built in 1841, as was the deep ditch at right which led to the river to drain the marshy ground. At left is the Gaol Governor's house. The two towers are on the east wall. In the foreground there seems to be stone left over following construction.

The picture is captioned "H M S Goal" by the problematic speller Gill.

(Preceded by NLA R374.) It is inscribed by Gill on the reverse: "Mr Allen". Although the gaol is not specifically mentioned in the lists of Allen's dissolving views, it most likely accords with lecture 1 which included public buildings and institutions. Corresponding watercolour: none.

Map | S. T. Gill - Adelaide

2


St. John's Church, So. Adelaide, So. A. | NLA R110

Thumbnail image for NLA R110St. John's Church, So. Adelaide, So. A. | National Library of Australia R110 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-07/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. n/a
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

St. John's Church (acre 581) Halifax-street near East Terrace looking south-east with the hills in the background. St. John's was opened for public worship with a service on Sunday 24 October 1841.

For some reason - possibly aesthetic - Gill has shown five, not six, side windows in all his pictures of St John's.

Lecture / dissolving view: 2/1. (Other near identical sketches, such as SLNSW PXC 284.)

This is almost identical to F.R. Nixon's 1845 print, though it's interesting to note that Gill has artistic five side windows while Nixon has a realistic six.

Map | S. T. Gill - Adelaide

5


F. [i.e. Frome] Bridge from W side | NLA R111

Thumbnail image for NLA R111F. [i.e. Frome] Bridge from W side | National Library of Australia R111 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-09/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. n/a
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

Frome Bridge on the Torrens River opened on 18 August 1842. It was located on a bend opposite Pulteney Street. In the foreground is the rocky ford below the bridge, near which is a distinctive log from flood debris. This was Adelaide's main watering place – a colonist fills a bucket, a horse drinks and a water cart departs. At right another water cart is arriving from the city to refill.

James Allen's lecture / dissolving view: 2/2. Corresponding watercolour: NLA R35.

Map | S. T. Gill - Adelaide

6


Sturt's Expedition | NLA R113

Thumbnail image for NLA R113Sturt's Expedition | National Library of Australia R113 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1844-08/1845-06 | Appleyard cat. 80.2
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

The scene is the departure from Adelaide of Charles Sturt's Great Northern Expedition on 10 August 1844.

The cavalcade is proceeding from Grenfell Street at the right of picture and turning into and continuing north along King William Street. The view is northeast, looking from a vacant block (acre 140) diagonally across the intersection to Montefiore's store (acre 108), behind and to the right of which are the South Australian Company buldings on Rundle Street (acre 44).

There are three known versions of this scene by Gill. The narrowest of the views is wash drawing NLA R113. NGA 2012.1307 is a bit wider and includes Montefiore's residence at far right. AGSA 0.1128 is the most panoramic of the views and further includes at far right the (back of) the Wesleyan Chapel in Gawler Place (acre 106).

Unlike AGSA 0.644, this scene predates King William Street premises (acre 79) of surgeon dentist Robert Norman built between April and July 1845.

James Allen's lecture / dissolving view: 3/4. Corresponding watercolour: several.

Map | S. T. Gill - Adelaide

251


Adelaide race course, '45 | NLA R118

Thumbnail image for NLA R118Adelaide race course, '45 | National Library of Australia R118 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-07/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. n/a
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

The scene is the annual New Year races held on 1-3 January 1845. The view is down the straight with the hills in the background and the Grand Stand at right. The races were run on the Park Lands near the southeast corner of the city. The Grand Stand was funded and erected by Henry Robinson of the Freemasons' Tavern in Pirie Street. Robinson also raced his horse "Cobbler" who, with "Matilda", was the focus of the races. Prominent in the centre foreground is a horse with a striped blanket and the letter "R" which is probably Robinson's "Cobbler".

It is inscribed by Gill on the reverse: "Mr Allen".
James Allen's lecture / dissolving view: 3/5.

Map | S. T. Gill - Adelaide District

12


Meeting of Adelaide hounds at Dry Creek, Northern Road | NLA R109

Thumbnail image for NLA R109Meeting of Adelaide hounds at Dry Creek, Northern Road | National Library of Australia R109 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-05/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. n/a
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

A meeting of the Adelaide Hounds (sometimes called the Adelaide Hunt) outside James Hill's Dry Creek Inn. The inn was about seven miles from Adelaide on the Northern Road, this road being pictured in front of the inn and stretching into the distance and running about SE-NW. A meet was held here 10 August 1844 after the departure of Sturt's expedition, but the absence of flower bedecking and expeditioners suggests this is not meant to be that occasion. A hunt was also held here on the afternoon of 24 May 1845 on the occasion of the Queen's Birthday.

James Allen's lecture / dissolving view: 3/6.

Map | S. T. Gill - Adelaide District

4


Hunting the kangaroo | NLA R117

Thumbnail image for NLA R117Hunting the kangaroo | National Library of Australia R117 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-07/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. n/a
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

The scene is of kangaroo coursing with two mounted riders and three hounds chasing three kangaroos through the bush. Gill's kangaroos were not a strong point and their motion here looks unrealistic. This is one of only two pictures in James Allen's wash collection with an unspecified location.

It is inscribed by Gill on the reverse: "Mr Allen".
James Allen's lecture / dissolving view: 3/8. Corresponding watercolour: no corresponding Allen watercolour.

This is almost identical to a predecessor wash, NLA NK7063/15.

This work, or perhaps its predecessor, was used by Angas as a study for plate 19, "Kangaroo Hunting, near Port Lincoln. Albert Park in the distance" in Angas's "South Australia Illustrated".

11


Interior of settler's hut | NLA R116

Thumbnail image for NLA R116Interior of settler's hut | National Library of Australia R116 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-07/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. n/a
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

The hut interior is crowded with people, pets and objects. (It is a rare illustration of a cat.) Perhaps less noticeable items are a short handled sickle (wall, right), possibly an almanack (wall, left) and a frame hanging above the mantlepiece. This is one of only two pictures in James Allen's wash collection with an unspecified location.

It is inscribed by Gill on the reverse: "Mr Allen".
James Allen's lecture / dissolving view: 3/10. Corresponding watercolour: no corresponding Allen watercolour, though Gill did later sketches of this subject.

10


A. & H. Exhibition, Park Lands | NLA R108

Thumbnail image for NLA R108A. & H. Exhibition, park lands | National Library of Australia R108 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-02/1845-11 | Appleyard cat. 68
Catalogue: S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845

The Agricultural and Horticultural Exhibition was held in Adelaide on Friday 14 February 1845 on the Park Lands to the northeast of the city. This is a front view of the exhibition showing the 120 foot long main pavillion and three smaller marquees set amongst the gum trees.

Gill painted front views such as this one and also rear views showing the carriage entrance.

This work is inscribed by Gill on the reverse: "Mr Allen".
James Allen's llecture / dissolving view: 3/12. Corresponding watercolour: AGSA 0.641.

Map | S. T. Gill - Adelaide

3


Other Works Related to Allen's Dissolving Views

These are other works related to the subjects of James Allen's dissolving views. The two works by William Light are of particular interest.

Landing place, Glenelg | AGSA 0.669

Thumbnail image for AGSA 0.669Landing place, Glenelg | Art Gallery of South Australia 0.669 
Artist: Light, William | Date: 1837

In 1890 Sir E.T. Smith brought back watercolours from London for the Gallery. As well as conveying donations from the South Australian Company of watercolours by S.T. Gill (forJames Allen) he personally donated two William Light watercolours which also appear to be part of James Allen's lecture content. This is one of those.

It shows the early colonial immigrants on the beach at Holdfast bay. David Elder dates the scene to about 16 June 1837 based on notebook sketches. (Elder 1987, 112-3)

James Allen may have used this watercolour for his 1846 lecture 1 / dissolving view 1.

531


The commencement of colonization in South Australia | AGSA 0.670

Thumbnail image for AGSA 0.670The commencement of colonization in South Australia | Art Gallery of South Australia 0.670 
Artist: Light, William | Date: 1837

In 1890 Sir E.T. Smith brought back watercolours from London for the Gallery. As well as conveying donations from the South Australian Company of watercolours by S.T. Gill (forJames Allen) he personally donated two William Light watercolours which also appear to be part of James Allen's lecture content. This is one of those.

It shows the early site of Adelaide on the Torrens River with Aborriginal people, colonists and their dwellings. Light sent the watercolour to England in May 1837 (Hylton 2012, 44-45). It was lithographed in January 1838:
"In a few days will be published, price 7s. 6d. A VIEW of the Country, and of the temporary Erections, near the Site for the proposed TOWN of ADELAIDE, in SOUTH AUSTRALIA. Forming the first of a Series of Views of that Colony, to be published in a uniform size of 22 by 15 inches, and engraved in the highest style of the art. From the original Drawings by Colonel WILLIAM LIGHT. Published by Smith, Elder, & Co., 65, Cornhill." South Australian Record (London) 13 January 1838: 2. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article245931975.

James Allen may have used the watercolour or the lithograph for his 1846 lecture 1 / dissolving view 7.

530


Tiers (The Timber Splitters) | SLNSW-M PXD 39 f.54

Thumbnail image for SLNSW-M PXD 39 f.54Tiers (The Timber Splitters) | Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales PXD 39 f.54 
Artist: After Gill, S.T. | Date: 1845-03-11

This wash drawing is titled "Tiers" - the name given by the colonists to the Adelaide Hills to the east of the city. The Tiers was a favoured location for sourcing timber for Adelaide.

This is one of two sepia wash drawings being scenes in the Tiers (Adelaide Hills) and dated Tuesday 11 and Wednesday 26 March 1845 by reverse inscriptions. They are part of a SLNSW collection (PXD 39) of pictures in an album of William Anderson Cawthorne (1824-1897), previously attributed to him, of which a good number seem to be wholly or partly by Gill or strongly influenced by him.

Gill was for a time Cawthorne's art master. Cawthorne has his first lesson with Gill on 22 February 1845, little more than a fortnight before the first of these two pictures.

It's hard to tell whether that are by the master or the student, but I think they are likely excellent copies of Gill by Cawthorne.

This is the first extant version of Gill's oft repeated "Timber Splitters" theme. A later version is titled "Stringy Bark" (SLNSW DL Pd 133). "Stringy Bark", "Tiers" and "Splitters" were all of the same theme.

So the subject matter corresponds with James Allen's lecture 2, dissolving view 4, titled "The Stringy Bark Forest".

Map | S. T. Gill - Adelaide District

196


Reaping Machine | Private

Thumbnail image for Private Reaping Machine | Private collection
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1844-11/1845 | Appleyard cat. n/a

Rob Linn's book "Sharing the Good Earth" (p.19) has a sketch by S.T. Gill of a reaping machine being pulled by team of four bullocks driven by a man, the machine steered by another man at the back. A second reaping machine works in the background. The sketch is from a private collection.

Is it John Ridley's machine or a design by another such as James Allen or Alexander J. Murray, both of whom enterred the September 1843 design competition and were closely connected to Gill? Entrants in the competition presented drawings or models of their designs.

In other pictures of Ridley's harvester (watercolour SLSA SRG 112/14/9 and Dutton's book 'South Australia and its Mines') a pair of horses push the machine. On the other hand, Murray's machine was steered "like a boat".

However a later description by C.H. Bagot of Ridley's machine in operation in December 1844 says it was pulled by six bullocks and steered by a man. Had Ridley modified his own design to be like Murray's? It's clear from newspaper reports that Ridley's design was not static and he "never hesitated to recommend and communicate the newest improvements which his science or experience have suggested in their construction". In "South Australia as it is and how to get to it", published in London in 1847, James Allen noted: "Mr. Ridley, the inventor of this machine, has since made some improvements in it; and it is now drawn by bullocks, instead of being pushed forward by horses." (Allen 1847, 10)

The picture correspond with the description of one of James Allen's lecture 2, dissolving view 5: "Sketch of Ridley's Simultaneous Reaping and Thrashing Machine in full work".

376


Klemzig (German Village on the Torrens) | NLA S1168

Thumbnail image for NLA S1168Klemzig (German Village on the Torrens) | National Library of Australia S1168 
Artist: Nixon, F.R. | Date: 1845-02~/1845-03-22

This is dated February 1845 by Nixon in the picture.

Nixon displayed an early artistic interest in Klemzig which is only four miles from Adelaide and was the subject of his travel writing in 1842, identifying it as a prime artist's subject:
"Soon after leaving [Walkerville], you reach Klemzig – its name telling it is a German village. This again is another pretty spot, but wearing altogether a different aspect to that we have passed; nothing English here – even from the picturesque kirk down to the pony cart, all is different. In building the village, the people appear to have previously made a series of plans and sketches, by which their houses should be placed and formed; all is regular, and, at the same time, (though perhaps rather paradoxical,) extremely simple and picturesque. Again in the dress and looks of the people themselves, there is something certainly much more suited to a picture, or what an artist would select, than anything of the kind we might seek for among our own common-place commercial-looking countrymen. This is the same with their very carriages, their harness, their mode of driving..." ("South Australian Magazine", June 1842 issue. p.343-44. <https://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-1988478354/view?partId=nla.obj-1988496815#page/n38/mode/1up>)

The subject matter corresponds with James Allen's lecture 2, dissolving view 8.

This view is almost identical to the one in Angas' Sketchbook No. 3 (NLA R6521). Philip Jones thinks Nixon's engraving "appears to be a direct copy of Angas's pencil drawing or finished watercolour of Klemzig" (Jones 2021, 96-99). He doesn't give any evidence for this opinion, however there is much evidence against it.
  1. Content. Nixon's picture has more content than Angas'; there is a complete additional building (left foreground). It's not possible to copy what's not there.
  2. Opportunity. Nixon was a long time resident, surveyor and amateur artist, even writing about his artistic interest in Klemzig in the June 1842 "South Australian Magazine", well before Angas' visit to South Australia.
  3. Timing. Nixon published his "Twelve Views in Adelaide" in March 1845 while Angas was in town. Nixon's portfolio for this series was reported in the newspaper less than a week after Angas' return from New Zealand.
  4. Motivation. It's hard to imagine what interest Nixon would have had to copy the peripatic Angas for just one out of twelve scenes in his series and of a location just down the road.
  5. Absence of criticism. In June 1845 James Allen criticised Nixon's criticism of Angas, and heavily criticised Nixon's prints, but did not raise lack of originality.

Reference. Jones, Philip G. and Angas, George French. and National Library of Australia, issuing body. and South Australian Museum, issuing body. Illustrating the Antipodes : George French Angas in Australia & New Zealand, 1844-1845 / Philip Jones. NLA Publishing, Canberra ACT. South Australian Museum, Adelaide SA. 2021

Map | S. T. Gill - Adelaide District

502


Moorunde - old Police Station and Mr Eyres house from sketch by Hon'ble Capt. Frome | AGSA 0.35

Thumbnail image for AGSA 0.35Old Police Station and Edward John Eyre's House at Moorundie, River Murray, 1842 | Art Gallery of South Australia 0.35 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1844 | Appleyard cat. 26
Catalogue: S.T. Gill, E.J. Eyre, Symmetry 1844

The scene is the avenue of trees and Eyre's station at Moorunde on the River Murray.

Appleyard notes the reverse inscription "Moorunde old Police Station / and Mr Eyres house from / Sketch by Hon'ble Capt. Frome". Dated 1844 by Gill, this is likely to have been painted for Eyre based on Frome's March 1842 sketch (AGSA 709HP74). That annotated sketch identifies the police hut (centre right) and "Eyre's shanty" (far right). Both works feature those buildings as well as cutter "Water Witch" which sank at its mooring on 5 December 1842.

As noted by Appleyard (cat. 26) this watercolour was likely for E.J. Eyre who "took it to England where it apparently became the property of the South Australian Company and in 1846 may have been used by James Allen to illustrate his lectures". The subject matter corresponds with James Allen's lecture 2, dissolving view 9.

I haven't been able to examine this work. However it is reproduced in Appleyard and at <http://www.murrayriver.com.au/paddleboats/river-boat-trail-blanchetown/>.

31


Crouching for, and shooting, the Emu | NLA NK7063/13

Thumbnail image for NLA NK7063/13Emu stalking | National Library of Australia NK7063/13 
Artist: Gill, S.T. | Date: 1844~/1845~ | Appleyard cat. n/a

Two colonists are stalking (or "crouching for") and shooting emu.

Dissolving view 7 for James Allen's lecture 3 is titled "Crouching for, and shooting, the Emu, or Australian ostrich". So the Allen commission would likely have included a wash drawing very similar to this one. However I am still working on whether this particular work was for Allen or another.

99



David Coombe, August 2021. | text copyright (except where indicated)
Updated 22 November 2021.

CITE THIS: David Coombe, 2021, S.T. Gill and James Allen, 1845, accessed dd mmm yyyy, <http://coombe.id.au/S_T_Gill/S_T_Gill_and_James_Allen_1845.htm>